1891 William Painter president of Crown Cork & Seal Co encourages King C Gillette to invent a disposable good. (Adams P18)

1895-04 KCGillette has the idea for a disposable razor blade. (Adams P22)

1899-06 First 3 metal prototype razors are made by Boston machinist Steven Porter. (Adams P29)
1899-08-11 KCGillette files his first patent on his razor. (Adams P30)

1900 KCGillette is unable to conceive of a suitable manufacturing design. Engineering expert William Nickerson is courted. (Adams P36)

1901-06-28 KCGillette initial patent application approved, but final fee is unpaid. No number is issued. (White P3588-3589)
1901-09-01 WNickerson approves of KCGillette's razor idea after month long evaluation. (Adams P37)
1901-10 KCGillette's American Safety Razor Co. was incorporated. (Adams P26)
1901-12-03 KCGillette again files for double edge razor patent (US775134A). (Wait P568)

1902-05 ASRCo name changed to Gillette Safety Razor Company. (Adams P40)
1902-10-10 John Joyce pledges to provide funding to GSRCo with approval of company directors. (Adams P43)

1903-04 WNickerson completes first manufacturing machines and commercial production capability. (Adams P43)
1903-05-09 Pricing is established at $5.00 per set - razor and 20 blades - 1/3rd a workers weekly wage. (Adams P44, TGB 01-1919 P8)
1903-07-02 Townsend & Hunt, a Chicago Sales firm, agrees to buy 50,000 sets. (Adams P44, TGB 01-1919 P9)
1903 Townsend & Hunt starts doing business as Gillette Sales Company. (Adams P45)
1903-12-31 Fifty one (51) Double Ring razor sets were sold by year's end. (Adams P45)

1904-01-04 Number of blades per packages reduced from 20 to 12. (Adams P46)
1904-01-09 KCGillette goes to England. Ward B Holloway elected President of GSRCo in his stead. (TGB 01-1919 P11)
1904-06-17 Factory cannot keep up with demand. Not even the 1275 sets per week needed to breakeven. (Adams P50)
1904-11-15 KCGillette awarded patent (US775134A) for the razor handle and disposable blade. (Wait P568)
1904-12-31 Production problems solved. 91,000 sets had been sold so far. Plus 10,000 packages of extra blades. (Adams P55)

1905-04 Advertising budget increased from $0.25 per razor set sale to $0.50 (Adams P56)
1905 GSRCo sets up European sales office in London under Jacob Heilborn. (Adams P68)
1905 First foreign manufacturing facility established in Nogent-en-Bassigny France as a contract manufacturer. (Adams P69 P97)
1905-12-31 GSRCo fights to keep discounted product off the market coming from Sam Farbstein. (Adams P60)

1906 Inventions Securities Company founded as a holding company for KCGillette and his allies 32,668 shares of 65,000 outstanding in GSRCo. (Adams P73)
1906 EverReady, Gem and Enders are competing at $1.00 per razor set via mostly patent infringement. (Adams P62)
1906 Second foreign manufacturing facility established in Montreal Canada. Gillette Safety Razor Co of Canada, Limited. (Adams P69)
1906-03 GSRCo sues Sanborn & Robinson Hardware for patent infringement for selling products of the Gem Cutlery Co. (Adams P63)
1906-12-31 Patent attorney Cliford E Dunn ably defends S&RHardware causing GSRCo to mightily fear for their patent's annulment. (Adams P64)
1906 GSRCo shareholder dividend payout $130,000 (Adams P76)

1907-01 GSRCo drops suit against S&RHardware and pays Gem's attorney's fees. (Adams P65)
1907-01 KCGillette made president of GSRCo. (Adams P75)
1907-03-14 GSRCo retains CEDunn as their patent attorney and causes Gem to agree to not disclose reasons for dismissal of the suit. (Adams P65)
1907-04 KCGillette is president of Gillette Securities Company renamed from Inventions Security Co. (Adams P74)
1907 GSRCo shareholder dividend payout $130,000 (Adams P76)

1908 Newark New Jersey manufacturing factory up and running. (Adams P75)
1908-12-31 Third foreign manufacturing facility established in Berlin Germany. (Adams P69)
1908 GSRCo shareholder dividend payout $130,000 (Adams P76)
1908 GSRCo year end cash reserves and surplus $900,000 (Adams P76)

1909 Fourth foreign manufacturing facility established in Leicester England. (Adams P69)
1909 King C Gillette Company created and run by KCGillette which absorbed shares from Gillette Securities Co. A maneuver to fend off John Joyce (Adams P77)
1909 GSRCo has sold about 375,000 razor sets in the year. (Adams P71)
1909 GSRCo has sold nearly 2,000,000 razors total and tens of millions of blades per year. (Adams P50)

1910 Newark New Jersey facility closed and land sold. (Adams P78)
1910 KCGillette sells 2/3rds of his shares to John Joyce for $900,000. (Adams P81)

1911-05-11 GSRCo and attorney CEDunn defeat Clark Blade & Razor Co in an iron-bound ratification of GSRCo's patents (Adams P66)

1913 Berlin Germany manufacturing facility dissolved and equipment moved to Leicester England. (Adams P97)
1913 KCGillette moves his permanent residence to the state of California. (Adams P125)

1914 French manufacturing facility in a war zone and cut off from supply. (Adams P97)
1914 Razor sales for the year reach approximately 390,000 units. (Adams P92)

1915-06 Milady Decollete brought out and introduced as a ladies smoother. First razor targeted directly at women exclusively. (Adams P92)
1915 Leicester England manufacturing factory is liquidated leaving only Boston and Montreal. (Adams P98)

1916 Russian salesman orders 80,000 razors and 600,000 dozen blades. (Adams P99)
1916 Razor sales for the year reach 782,028 units. (Adams P92)

1917-01-26 John Joyce majority shareholder in GSRCo dies. (Adams P93)
1917-02-03 EBWharton/GSRCo files for New Improved razor patent (US1328024A) (Wait P582)
1917-09-20 John Edward Aldred purchases JJoyce shares from his estate and reorganized GSRCo as a Delaware Corporation.
1917 Razor sales for the year exceeds 1,000,000 units. (Adams P92)

1918 US War Department orders 519,750 razors and 710,000 dozen blades. (Adams 103)
1918 By the end of the war a total of 3,500,000 razors and 32,000,000 had been purchased by the government for military use. (Adams P103)
1918 Boston Factory capacity at 26,000 razors per day and 700,000 blades per day. (Adams P108)

1919 Gillette girls employed to demonstrate shaving techniques in various cities. (Adams P104)
1919 Lavish retail service stores opened in San Francisco, Chicago and New York. (Adams P104)
1919 Gillette sales force complete with 13 Gillette logo-ed Franklin convertible motor cars is employed. (Adams P104)
1919 Wholly owned subsidiary sales offices set up in many countries around the globe. (Adams P118)

1920-01-13 EBWharton/GSRCo granted New Improved razor patent (US1328024A) (Wait P582, Adams P107)
1920 GSRCo sets up manufacturing facility in Slough outside of London. (Adams P119)

1921-05-21 GSRCo offers the New Improved razor to the market (The Saturday Evening Post P74-75)
1921-07-31 GSRCo sells 500,000 New Improved razors in two months. (Adams P108)
1921-11-15 KCGillette original patent expires (US775134A). (Adams P107)
1921-11-30 GSRCo sells 3,000,000 Old Style Brownie razor kits for $1.00 each in the previous 6 months. (Adams P108)
1921 GSRCo has 250,000 establishments offering its products for sale. (Adams P108)
1921 Boston Factory capacity at 40,000 razors per day and 1,000,000 blades per day. (Adams P108)
1921-12-31 Annual razor sales hit 4,200,000 razors and 19,500,000 dozen blades. (Adams P108)

1923-10-06 HJGaisman/AutoStrop files for better blade patent (US1658435A). (Wait P586)

1924-01 GSRCo reduces the number of blades per pack from 12 and 6 to 10 and 5 but re-instituted individual wax paper wrappings. (Adams P110)

1925 GSRCo has opened 44 branch offices and agencies around the globe. (Adams P119)
1925 Annual razor sales hit 15,000,000 razors and 500,000,000 blades. (Adams P121)
1925 Boston factory capacity at 150,000 razors per day and 3,000,000 blades per day. (Adams P139)

1926-04 GSRCo purchases German market competitor Roth-Buchner Company. (Adams P111)
1926 British War Office purchases 200,000 British made Gillette razors. (Adams P120)
1926 Export sales account for 35% of GSRCo annual dollar volume. (Adams P121)
1926 Extra Silver Jubilee dividend declared for a total of $4.50 per share - $9,000,000 on 2,000,000 shares outstanding.
1926 GSRCo has paid a dividend and shown a profit in each year over the last 20. (Adams P138)

1927 GSRCo had no debt, has financed all expansions through profits and assets in bank accounts over $6,000,000. (Adams P139)
1927 GSRCo reckons that 40 million razors are still in service each needing blades. (Adams P139)
1927 GSRCo reckons an additional 760 million potential male customers still untapped. (Adams P139)
1927 GSRCo launches Rubie Blade Corp New York to sell to large private-label mass marketers such as Woolworth's using Boston factory QC rejects. (Adams P111)
1927 Barten, Barton, Durstine & Osborn advertising agency determines 80 percent of the nation's shavers use GSRCo's razors and blades. (Adams P112)
1927 BBD&O determines the average American shaves 4.4 times per week at 8.5 shaves per blade. (Adams P115)
1927 BBD&O determines customers believe blade quality has deteriorated badly, however this was not in fact the case. (Adams P140)
1927 Problems with the New Improved razor being able to crack blades if over tightened identified and resolved after shipping millions of units. (Adams P140)
1927 US Domestic sales of Gillette blades drops by 15% while foreign growth steady. (Adams P140)

1928-02-07 AutoStrop's HJGaisman awarded patent (US1658435A). (Wait P586)
1928 AutoStrop forms the subsidiary Probak to sell the new HJGaisman designed blade. (Adams P147)
1928-10 AutoStrop's HJGaisman offers patent to GSRCo for millions of dollars. (Adams P147)
1928 GSRCo sell more than a million razors into Australia. (Adams P122)
1928-11 Gillette goes into production with Kroman stainless steel blade (chromium-magnesium alloyed to carbon steel) to retail at $1.50 per 10. (Adams P141)

1929-03 GSRCo redesigns blade to be squared with corners cut out and long horizontal slot so as not to be compatible with AutoStrop razors. (Adams P149)
1929-11 AutoStrop's HJGaisman has redesign of Probak blades compatible with GSRCo's New razor in an astounding case of unproven industrial espionage. (Adams P150)

1930-01 Probak beats Gillette to market with the redesigned blade bearing newly reissued patent numbers. (Adams P151)
1930-03-08 GSRCo announces New razor as Pat Pending in a 5 page advertisement. (The Saturday Evening Post P89-93)
1930-03 AutoStrop issues cease and desist letter to GSRCo (Adams P154)
1930-04 AutoStrop sues GSRCo for blade patent infringement. (Adams P155)
1930-06 GSRCo has great fear of loss of case. (Adams P156)
1930-10 GSRCo stock price is in the low $30 range off from $100 per share just prior to last years stock market crash. (Adams P160)
1930-10-16 GSRCo announces to buy AutoStrop for 310,000 shares of GSRCo preferred stock with voting rights. Suit is dropped. (Adams P157-P159)
1930-11-18 GSRCo shareholders approve merger. HJGainsman becomes chairman of GSRCo. (Adams P159)

1931 Maxon Inc of Detroit replaces BBD&O as advertising agency. (Adams P168)
1931-05 Gerald B Lambert becomes president of GSRCo replacing KCGillette. (Adams P164)
1931-05-27 Competitor H R Segal files for patent of twist to open double edge razor. (US1940149A)
1931 GSRCo old single blade production machinery destroyed to make way for new continuous strip process. (Adams P168)
1931-06 GSRCo test markets ad campaign which says New blades were inferior and new machinery has been installed to solve problems. (Adams P172)

1932-01 Kroman stainless steel blades are discontinued and replaced by the Blue Super-Blade in blue not green packaging. (Adams P173)
1932-06-07 GSRCo files for patent on its own twist to open one-piece razor. (US1919794A)
1932-07-09 KCGillette Dies. His estate and many of his real estate investments were sold at substantial losses. (New York Times P13, Adams P181)

1933-06 GSRCo introduces Truflex blade at 2 for $0.10. (Adams P176)
1933 GSRCo starts sell all blades (Blue, Probak and AutoStrop) on lower retail pricing. (Adams P176)
1933 GSRCo cajoles legions of small dealers by flatting discount pricing structure with Gillette Protected Profit Plan. (Adams P176)
1933 In England, Gillette Industries Ltd formed combining assets with AutoStrop. (Adams P182)
1933 GSRCo shows a $3.6 millon annual profit. (Adams P182)

1934 A new Paris factory opens. (Adams P182)
1934 GBLambert resigns as unable to meet profit goals. Samuel C Stampleman takes over as president. (Adams P181)
1934-12-08 Gillette Aristocrat TTO one-piece razor introduced. (The Saturday Evening Post P101-102)

1935 Boxer Max Baer Name His Dog competition gets 250,000 entries proving to GSRCo sports advertising works. (Adams P188)
1935 More than half of GSRCo annual earning comes from overseas. (Adams P183)
1935 GSRCo introduces the one-piece TTO razor as the Aristocrat. (Adams P183)

1936 Gillette Industries Ltd expands manufacturing in West London. (Adams P182)
1936 Gillette Brushless Shaving cream introduced to marketplace. (Adams P183)
1936 GSRCo shows a $5 million annual profit. (Adams P182)

1937-01-09 Gillette has a weekly radio program hosted by Milton Berle. (Adams P188, The Saturday Evening Post P52)
1937 More than 2/3rds of GSRCo annual earnings comes from overseas. (Adams P183)
1937 GSRCo shows a $4.5 million annual profit. (Adams P182)

1938 Berlin subsidiary Roth-Buchner move into new quarters. (Adams P182)
1938 Thin Gillette cheap blade introduced for 4 for $0.10. (Adams P183)
1938 Nearly all the earings at GSRCo come from overseas. (Adams P183)
1938 GSRCo shows a $2.9 million annual profit. (Adams P182)
1938 GSRCo domestic market share is at 20%. (Adams P184)
1938-12 J P Sprang Jr appointed president. Pumps up advertising budget. (Adams P192)
1938-12 GSRCo introduces the Gillette Dry Shaver electric. (Adams P183)

1939 GSRCo introduces the lower cost Kumpakt electric. (Adams P183)
1939-04-18 GSRCo votes to pension Mrs King C Gillette $200 per month to keep her from sinking into poverty. (Adams P194-195)
1939-08-01 JPSprangJr purchases exclusive baseball World Series broadcasting rights for $100,000 of the $1.5 million advertising budget (Adams P190, P193)
1939 Germany invades Poland. GSRCo advertises on radio for World Series. (Adams P184)
1939 World Series ads a resounding success with 2.5 million Tech 3 piece solid bar razor sets sold at $0.49 each. (Adams P194)
1939 JPSprangJr drops the discount tiers for dealers and all pay the same price. (Adams P192)
1939 JPSprangJr upgrades blade manufacturing technology to improve quality. Process developed at British plant. (Adams P192)

1940 GSRCo withdraws from the electric shaver market (Adams P184)

1941 Gillette Cavalcade of Sports advertising campaign started. (Adams P197)

1942 US War Production Board orders the GSRCo must manufacture razors and blades almost exclusively for the military. Others are rationed. (Adams P198-199)
1942 A new manufacturing facility is opened in Argentina. (Adams P222)

1943 A new manufacturing facility is opened in Brazil. (Adams P222)

1945 During the war years Gillette produced about 20 million razors and 1.5 billion blades for military use. (Adams P198)

1946 Boone Gross engaged as General Sales Manager. Tasked by JPSprangJr to sell 1 Billion blades by 1950. (Adams P202)
1946 Look Sharp, Feel Sharp, Be Sharp advertising campaign begins. (Adams P203)
1946 A new manufacturing facility opens in Switzerland to serve the European market. (Adams P221)
1946 GSRCo annual sales top $50 million with a $10.5 million profit. (Adams P201)
1946 Samuel C Stampleman retires as Chairman. He is replaced by William Barron. (Adams P203)

1947 GSRCo US market share at about 40%. (Adams P203)
1947 Boone Gross surpasses the 1 billion blade sales mark and is rewarded with the title of vice president. (Adams P303)
1947 With the help of the 5 year old Argentina plant, Gillette achieves a 50% market share in that country; up from 12%. (Adams P222)
1947 Annual sales reach $59.5 million and profits reach $20.4 million. (Adams P210)

1948-01-02 Toni Co home hair permanent company purchased for $20 million. Presenting the deal to the board was outside attorney Carl J Gilbert. (Adams P210)
1948 Carl J Gilbert hired as company treasurer. (Adams P210)
1948-10-15 M J Shnitzler applies for the Gillette patent on the plastic blade dispenser. (US2692674A)
1948 GSRCo pays $175,000 for broadcasting rights to the World Series; including both radio and television rights. (Adams P214)
1948 West Berlin manufacturing facility back to full capacity after devastation of the war. (Adams P221)
1948 British manufacturing facilities get expanded. (Adams P222)
1948 Mexican sales subsidiary, supplied by Boston and Montreal, boosts sales by 400% in the last 2 years via radio advertising. (Adams P222)
1948 Annual sales reach $85.9 million and profits reach $25.6 million. (Adams P210)

1949 GSRCo contracts to pay $1.4 million for exclusive radio rights to the World Series through 1956. (Adams P214)
1949 Carl J Gilbert, as Gillette ambassador and negotiator, gets approvals that result in a Mexico blade manufacturing facility being built. (Adams P223)
1949 Foreign operations account for approximately 30% of Gillette's total annual profit. (Adams P224)

1950 GSRCo contracts to pay $1 million per year for exclusive television rights to the World Series through 1956. (Adams P214)
1950 Toni introduces the one-piece plastic curler. Profits and sales are slumping at Toni. (Adams P211, P224)

1951 Boone Gross president of GSRCo. (Adams P216)
1951 London accounted for $5.5 million of GSRCo profit; 1/3rd of total profits. 60% of London's profit from exports outside of Great Britain. (Adams P222)
1951 Carl J Gilbert goes to Panama, negotiates the "Gillette Law" for a free trade zone and establishes The Gillette Export Corp. (Adams P223)
1951 A new manufacturing facility is selected in Annecy France. JPSprangJr personally visits to dedicate the plant. (Adams P222)

1952 The Gillette Company is organized as 3 divisions: Gillette Safety Razor Co Division, Toni Division, Eastern Hemisphere Division (Adams P218)
1952 JPSprang Jr appointed president. Carl J Gilbert appointed vice president. Boone Gross in charge of the razor division. (Adams P218)
1952 British manufacturing facilities get expanded again. (Adams P222)
1952 Foreign operations account for approximately 40% of Gillette's total annual profit; up from 1949. (Adams P224)

1953 Foamy shave cream in a can is introduced. (Adams P226, P249)

1954 Toni introduces a lipstick called Viv. But due to the costs of radio advertising, Toni loses $1 million on sales $3 million. Viv is dropped. (Adams P225)

1955-09-30 JPSprangJr approves Paper Mate pen company purchase for $15.5 million. (Adams P229-230)
1955 JPSprangJr has a vision for The Gillette Company to be a diversified holding company, run by an administrator and coordinator. (Adams P231)
1955 Gillette achieves about a 65% market share in the razor blade market. The division accounts for 75% of the total company sales and profits. (Adams P232)
1955-11-01 MJShnitzer applies for Gillette patent on its first adjustable razor - the Toggle. (US2848806A)

1956-03 Carl J Gilbert promoted to President of The Gillette Company. William Barron retires and JPSprangJr becomes chairman. (Adams P230-231)
1956-03-19 MJShnitler applies for Gillette patent on the Bottom Dial adjustable razor. (US2952911A)
1956-06-07 Toggle adjustable razor introduced to the public. (Racine Journal Times P36)
1956 Gillette keeps watch on the electric shaver market which now has reached $125 million annual sales, tripling since 1950. (Adams 233)
1956 Total sales reaches $200 million. (Adams P231)

1957 GSRCo contracts to pay $3 million per year for exclusive television rights to the World Series through 1961. (Adams P215)
1957 Toni introduces the successful Adorn hair spray. Other products introduced fail at a rate of about 80% which is considered acceptable. (Adams 231)
1957 Gillette forms a proprietary drug division named Gillette Laboratories and introduces a cough syrup. (Adams P231)
1957 Gillette claims 40% of the European shaving market. Electric shavers claim 23%. (Adams P259)

1959 The 195 Gillette Adjustable Razor or "Fatboy" establishes a new standard for shaving equipment. (Adams P232)
1959 Gillette Right Guard deodorant sold as a pilot in limited markets. (Adams P250)
1959 Gillette annual sales reaches $209 million. (Adams P237)

1960 The truly fantastic Super Blue blade with silicon coating is announced. (Adams P236, Patent US2937976A)
1960 Toiletries account for 6% of the razor divisions annual sales. (Adams P253)
1960 Gillette annual sales reaches $224.7 million. (Adams P237)

1961 Thanks in part to the success of the Super Blue blade, Gillette commands 70% of the blade market. (Adams P237)
1961 Gillette annual sales reaches $253.5 million. (Adams P237)

1962 GSRCo contracts to pay $4 million per year for exclusive television rights to the World Series through 1966. (Adams P215)
1962 Gillette annual sales reaches $276 million with net profit of 16%. Gillette was without a doubt the most profitable US company. (Adams P238)
1962-06 Wilkinson Sword, Limited introduces their coated stainless steel blade to the US market. (Adams P238)

1963 Gillette's South Boston manufacturing facility gets an $8 million expansion now having a production capability of 12 million blades per day. (Adams P245)
1963 Gillette introduces Sun Up after shave lotion. (Adams P253)
1963-09 Gillette introduces it's own stainless steel blade. (Adams P245)

1964-02 Vincent Zeigler, president of the razor division, warns that Gillette can no longer achieve 5% per year growth without diversification plan. (Adams P246)
1964 Vincent Zieglar is promoted by Carl J Gilbert and Boone Gross to executive vice president to oversee implementation of the diversification plans. (Adams P 247)
1964 Profitless Gillette Laboratories is jettisoned. (Adams P247)
1964 Foamy shave cream is the premier canned product on the market. (Adams P249)
1964 Gillette introduces Right Guard deodorant nationally. (Adams P248, P250)
1964 Gillette's stainless steel blade sales outpaces the combined total of all of its rivals. (Adams P245)
1964 Gillette's market share in the double edge blade arena has bottomed out to 70%. (Adams P246)
1964 Gillette European market share slips to 30% while electric shaver have risen to almost 40%. (Adams P259)

1965 Gillette introduces Heads Up hair-grooming preparation. (Adams P253)
1965 Toni counts Dippity-Do as a successful styling gel product, however home permanents are out of fashion. (Adams P254)
1965 Toiletries account for 38% of the razor divisions annual sales. (Adams P253)
1965 Gillette introduces the Super Stainless Steel Blade. It contains better alloys and coatings for improved performance. (Adams P255)
1965 Gillette introduces the Techmatic band razor shaving system. (Adams P255)
1965-07 Boone Gross retires and Vincent Ziegler named president of The Gillette Company. (Adams P256)

1966-05-10 Vincent Ziegler named chairman and chief executive officer. Stuart Hensley formerly of the Toni division is named president. (Adams P257)

1967 Gillette test markets the Contra shaving system in Australian. It is later renamed Atra an acronym for Australian Test Razor. (Adams P267)
1967-06-15 Stuart Hensley leaves as president to go work for Warner-Lambert Pharmaceutical Company. Ziegler takes over as president. (Adams P264)
1967-12 Gillette purchase Braun AG, the electric shaver company, for $50 million. (Adams P261)

1969 Gillette introduces the Platinum-Plus blade. (Adams P265)

1970 Gillette launches the Atra in the US Market. (Adams P268)
1970 Gillette annual sales reaches $672.7 million with 43% coming from outside the US for a total $66 million net profit. (Adams P262)

1971 Gillette shelves the Atra and Introduces the Trac II shaving system. (Adams P269)

1976-01-01 Vincent Ziegler retires and names Colman M Mockler Jr as new chairman-president of the Gillette Company. (Adams P283)
1976 Gillette's annual sales reaches $1.5 billion. (Adams P284)
1976 Razor blades account for 29% of annual sales but 73% of corporate profits. (Adams P284)

1977 Colman M Mockler Jr starts pruning back unprofitable products in earnest. (Adams P286)

Bibliography

Adams, Russell B - King C. Gillette, the man and his wonderful shaving device. 1978. ISBN 0-316-00937-7

TGB Various - The Gillette Blade (A Gillette Safety Razor Co newsletter self published between 1918 and 1929)

United States Patent and Trademark Office

Waits, Robert K - A Safety Razor Compendium - The Book. 2014. ISBN 978-1-312-29353-3

White, William Wallace - The Patent and Trade Mark Review. 1911. ISBN 1272542858

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